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Artwork
Details of the decoration to be applied to the piece of ware. This should be supplied as an original vector file (.eps) in PC format.

Bone China (Porcelain)
Bone China is a combination of typical ceramic clays and calcinated bone, the resulting ware being immensely strong but also translucent in fired form. Not to be confused with porcelain, this is derived through a much different mix of clays.

Ceramics/Pottery
An all embracing phrase misused to mean earthenware and china. The definition of ceramics is widely accepted as being pottery and china in all its forms plus industrial ceramics, bricks and tiles, clay pipe, refractory brick, ferrites and alumina in computers and electronics. Some materials in nuclear and laser technologies also fall into the category of ceramics.

Decoration
The image, pattern or text to be applied to the surface of the ware. The Mug Store processes apply the decoration by either direct or transfer printing. The design is supplied as artwork or is created by an art studio to a working brief.

Direct Print
By using individually separated screens, the image is applied to the moving body of the ware by silk screen printing. The process requires careful screen control, correct print material held in medium and accurate machine setting.

Earthenware
Basically composed of clay, often blended clays, and baked hard, the degree of hardness depending on the intensity of heat. An Earthenware vessel is porous and a glaze is applied to render the ware waterproof. If earthenware is fired at a very high temperature the properties of some of the constituents change and the vessel becomes non-porous (vitrification takes place and the ware is sometimes described as stoneware).

Film
Transparent artwork to allow contact exposure of a light sensitive screen material. In separations the film must register perfectly and the grade of film is important. Films produced using printers with high heat elements (e.g. laser printers) can vary and stretch, and distortion of images takes place. Films produced in different machines, or even at different times, can result in poor registration and image output.

Glaze
A smooth glassy coat applied to add colour and decoration plus hard non-porous surface. Glazes are made from a combination of materials, principally powered glass and coloured oxides. The methods of applying the glaze vary, but in firing, the glass softens and flows over the surface of the underlying material to make a strong, permanent bond.

Halftones
Patterns of dots, dot sizes and shapes, the resulting patterns of which can give lights and shades of an original image. Black and White photographs can be printed halftones.

Pre-Production Proof
A single printed piece of ware, produced in exactly the form proposed for bulk production. The proof is submitted for approval to ensure correct interpretation of instructions for ware shape and glaze, print instructions, artwork and colours.

Process Print
By carefully filtering a coloured image into four separation colours (cyan, magenta, yellow and black) the process colours, when printed in a precise combination of dots and angles, visually recreate the image. Any artwork for this process must be created according to very precise requirements and even any slight deviations from the specification will produce unacceptable images and colour.

Sample
A randomly chosen printed piece of ware as a representative sample of a print and ware shape.

Screen
A tightly stretched frame mounted fabric coated with a light sensitive emulsion. Through exposure, an image yields a negative impression through which the print substance can move to create the print. A separate screen is required for each colour separation.

Separations
Breaking a multicoloured image into its print colours. Each resulting separation is output on a piece of film or paper so that when realigned, through its registration marks, it will recreate the full image. For screen printing separation processes, the colours may touch each other but no overlaps (sometimes referred to as traps, chokes or spreads) may be allowed. The exception to the rule is possibly black key lines.

Transfer Print
The printing of the separation colours onto paper and finally cover coated. The resulting print adheres to the cover coat which can be separated from the paper after immersion in water. The transfer can then be water slid into place and left to dry. In firing, the overcoat burns away at a lower temperature, leaving the required print in place.

To find out more about the decoration process click here

 
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